The district consists mainly of low - lying plains, sloping towards the south with undulating areas on the northeast. The river Mahananda divides the district into two regions-the eastern region., consisting mainly of old alluvial and relatively unfertile soil, is commonly known as "Barind". The western region is further subdivided by the river Kalindri into two areas, the northern area is known as "Tal " - it is low laying and vulnerable to inundation during rainy season, the southern area consists of very fertile land and is thickly populated, being commonly known as " Diara ". The river Ganges flow along the south-western boundary of district. Other important rivers are Kalindri, Tangoan , Punarbhaba, Pagla and Bhagirathi.